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2016年职称英语考试理工B完形填空新增文章(2)

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摘要:Why India Needs Its Dying Vultures The vultures in question may look ugly and threatening, but the sudden sharp __1__ in three species of Indias vultures is producing alarm rather than celebration, and it presents the world with a new kind

Why India Needs Its Dying Vultures

  The vultures in question may look ugly and threatening, but the sudden sharp __1__ in three species of India’s vultures is producing alarm rather than celebration, and it presents the world with a new kind of environmental __2__ The dramatic decline in vulture numbers is causing widespread disruption to people living in the same areas as the __3__ . It is also causing serious public health problems __4__ the Indian sub-continent.

  While their reputation and appearance may be unpleasant to many Indians,vultures have

  __5__played a very important role in keeping towns and villages all over India clean. It is

  __6__they feed on dead cows. In India, cows are sacred animals and are __7__ left in the open when they die in their thousands upon thousands every year.

  The disappearance of the vultures has __8__ an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these dead animals. There are fears that rabies may __9__ as a result. And this terrifying disease may ultimately affect humans in the region, since wild dogs are its main carriers. Rabies could also spread to other animal species, causing an even greater problem in the __10__.

  The need for action is __11__, so an emergency project has been launched to __12__ a solution to this serious vulture problem. Scientists are trying to identify the disease causing the birds,deaths and, if possible, develop a cure.

  Large-scale vulture __13__ were first noticed at the end of the 1980s in India. A population survey at that time showed that the three species of vultures had declined __14__ over 90 per cent. All three species are now listed as “critically endangered”. As most vultures lay only single eggs and __15__ about five years to reach maturity, reversing their population decline will be a long and difficult exercise.

  词汇:

  vulture n.秃鹰

  ultimately adv.最终地

  species n.物种,种类

  endanger v.危及,濒危

  disruption n.破坏,毁坏

  maturity n.成熟期

  rabies n.狂犬症

  注释:

  1. The vulture in question: 讨论中的秀鹰(问题)。in question意为“讨论中的,考虑中的”。

  2. rather than:而不是。例:Your proposal is positive rather than negative. (你的提议是积极的,而不是消极的。)

  3. the Indian sub-continent: 印度次大陆

  4. while: 虽然。例:While he has published many papers, he is modest. (虽然他发表了多篇论文,他还是很谦虚。)

  5. thousands upon thousands:成千上万的

  6. in the open:在户外,在野外

  7. as a result:结果

  8. listed as “critically endangered”:被列为极度濒危动物

  练习:

  1. A. decline B. rise C. teeth D. eyes

  2. A. benefit B. debate C. problem D. solution

  3. A. plants B. birds C. humans D. cows

  4. A. over B. with C. through D. across

  5. A. sometimes B. long C. suddenly D. hardly

  6. A. who B. when C. because D. where

  7. A. traditionally B. occasionally C. possibly D. finally

  8. A. came from B. adjusted to C. resulted from D. led to

  9. A. drop B. increase C. disappear D. change

  10. A. future B. past C. villages D. mountains

  11. A. recent B. urgent C. frequent D. rare

  12. A. neglect B. use C. remove D. find

  13. A. cures B. arrivals C. deaths D. journeys

  14. A. along B. on C. in D. by

  15. A. take B. adopt C. consume D. waste

  答案与题解:

  1. A通篇文章都在叙述秃鹰濒临灭种对印度环境的负面影响,而且文章的标题中的“dying vultures”也提供了线索。decline符合上下文的意思,是答案。rise与上下文的意思相反。sharp teeth和sharp eyes是秃鹰的特点,但文章并未提及。

  2. C秃鹰濒临灭亡,给环境带来问题。上一句的“alarm rather than celebration”提供了解题的线索,秃鹰瀕临灭亡对我们是一种警告,而不是一件值得庆贺的事。选problem是合适的。至于debate和solution,文章并未涉及。

  3. B秃鹰数量的减少对当地居民是一种灾难。此外,对谁也是一种灾难呢?as引出的对象是谁呢? 这个对象不会是humans, plants或cows。答案是birds。

  4. D作者原来的用词一定是across the Indian sub-continent(整个印度次大陆),不可能是 over the Indian sub-continent(在印度次大陆上空),with the Indian sub-continent(与印度次大陆一起)或 through the Indian sub-continent(穿越印度次大陆)。

  5. B本段前面的句子描述了秃鹰在保护该地区的环境上作用很大,所以秃鹰不会是时有时无(sometimes)地起作用,或突然地(suddenly)起作用,或几乎不(hardly)起作用。只有选long(长期以来一直)起作用才合乎上下文的意思。

  6. C为什么秃鹰会起保护环境的作用呢?本段的下半段说出了其中的原因。牛在印度被视为神物,死后露尸户外,任其腐烂。秃鹰以食牛的尸体为生,同时也清除了污染源,保护了城镇和乡村的环境。这些句子讲的是原因,所以选择because是对的。

  7. A文章说每年有成千上万头牛死亡并露尸城镇和乡村。既然是这样,就不会是偶尔(occasionally)或可能(possibly)或最终(finally)露尸在城镇和乡村。露尸户外是印度的传统,所以traditionally是答案。

  8. D 本段第一句表达的是因果关系。The disappearance of the vultures 是因,an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these dead animals 是果。四个选项中只有led to (导致)能表达这种因果关系,所以led to是答案。

  9. B野狗是狂犬病菌的主要携带者,野狗大量的出现当然会增加狂犬病扩散的危险性,而不是相反。所以选increase是正确的,而drop是increase的反义词,不会是答案。change或disappear都脱离了上下文的意思,所以不是答案。

  10. A狂犬病从野狗传到人身上已经非常可怕,如果再传到其他动物身上问题就更严重了。 四个选项中,选future构成词组in the future(在未来)符合上下文的意思。

  11. B从后面的“an emergency project has been launched(启动了应急项目)”可以推断出要选的形容词是urgent(紧迫的)。

  12. D启动应急项目是为了找到一个解决的办法。neglect a solution, use a solution或remove a solution显然不符合上下文的意思。find是答案。

  13. C本段说秃鹰的数量急剧减少,已被列为濒危物种。本题的选项cures(治疗法)、 arrivals(到达)或 journeys(旅程)与本段后面一句 “All three species are now listed as ‘critically endangered’”所表达的意思接不上。选deaths, 全段的意思就连贯了。因此, deaths是答案。

  14. D在四个选项中,along, on,in明显不合适。by有“到(某事物)的程度”的意思。“...the three species of vultures had declined by over 90 per cent” 的意思是“三种秀鹰的数量减少了90%以上"。

  15. A “花费或用多少时间”英语的常用的表达法是“take... days/months, etc. ”。选take是正确的。其他三个选项都不合适。

  参考译文

  第八篇 印度为什么需要濒临灭亡的秃鹰

  人们谈论的秃鹰可能看起来既丑又危险,但是印度三种秃鹰濒临灭亡对我们是一种警告,而不是一件值得庆贺的事。它向世人明示了一个新的环境问题。秃鹰数量的急剧减少不仅是这些鸟类的灾难对当地居民同样也是如此,它同时给整个印度次大陆带来了公共卫生问题。

  虽然秃鹰的名声不好,许多印度人也讨厌其长相,但是长久以来,秃鹰在维护全印度的城镇和乡村的清洁方面扮演了非常重要的角色。因为秃鹰是以死牛为生。在印度,每年都有成千上万的牛死去,而牛是神圣的动物,死后露尸户外,任其腐烂。

  秃鹰的消失使得以牛尸为生的野狗数量暴增,因此,人们担心罹患狂犬病的病人会增加。由于野狗是狂犬病的主要携带者,这种可怕的疾病最终会影响当地的居民。狂犬病也可能传播到其他生物,未来会导致更大的问题。

  采取行动刻不容缓。所以,一个危机处理项目已经启动,目的是找到解决秃鹰问题的方法。科学家们正试图确认导致秃鹰死亡的疾病,如果可能的话,找到治愈该病的方法。

  在印度,人们注意到秃鹰的大批死亡最早是在20世纪80年代。根据当时的物种调查显示,三种秃鹰的数量减少了90%以上。目前,这三种秃鹰都被列为“极度濒危动物' 由于大部分秃鹰每次只产一只蛋,幼鹰需要大约5年的时间才能成熟,因此,若想遏制住秃鹰数量的下降会是一项长期的、艰巨的任务。

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